# 164 Must Read Glossary For TS16949 & Six Sigma Professionals

People who prepare for TS16949 IATF Auditor Evaluation process normally struggle w.r.t glossary terms, as these were spread at various places. Hence i have compiled all these glossary in one place in a word file.

Earlier i have uploaded these 164 glossaries as 45 pictures. These pictures can be quickly saved to your computers & inserted into powerpoint. You can use these powerpoint slides to train people. To see these images click this link "Go To 45 Image Slides"

## 164 Must Read Glossary

(MSA) - 5.15 represents 99% spread, 6 represents 99.73% spread.*5.15 Vs 6 σGRR Multiplying Factor*

2. **Accredited laboratory** (PPAP) – reviewed & approved by nationally recognized accreditation body, or as an alternative, a customer recognized accreditation body (conforming to ISO/IEC guide 58 of calibration or test laboratory accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025, or national equivalent).

3. ** Accuracy** (MSA) - closeness of agreement between an observed value & the accepted reference value.

4. **Active part** (PPAP) – currently being supplied for original equipment or service applications.

5. ** Analysis of variance** (MSA) – ANOVA (statistical method used in DOE)

6. ** Apparent resolution** (MSA) - least increment on instrument

7. **Appearance item** (PPAP) – visible once the vehicle is completed.

8. ** Apportionment** -

**Reliability apportionment**(APQP) - assignment of reliability goals from system to sub-system in such a way that the whole system will have the required reliability.

9. ** Appraiser variation** (MSA) - same part, same instrument, different operators

10. **Approved** (PPAP) – used in PPAP to mean that the parts, materials, & and/or related documentation meet all customer requirements.

11. **Approved drawing** (PPAP) – an engineering drawing signed by the engineer & released through customer’s system.

12. **Approved materials** (PPAP) – governed either by industry standard specifications or by customer specifications.

13. **Approved source list** (PPAP) – list of organizations & suppliers that have been found acceptable to the customer.

14. **Attribute data** (PPAP/SPC) – qualitative data that can be counted for recording & analysis.

15. **Authorized customer representative(s)** (PPAP) – is the individual or individuals having approval authority on behalf of the customer.

16. ** Autocorrelation** (SPC) – degree of relationship between elements of a stationary time series

17. ** Average run length** (SPC) – number of sample subgroups expected between out-of-control signals

18. ** Benchmark data** (APQP) – to determine how best-in-class performance is achieved.

19. ** Between-subgroup variation** (SPC) (See variation)

20. ** Bias** (MSA) (also Accuracy, location) – [observed average – reference value]

21. **Bill of material** (APQP) – list of components / materials to manufacture a product.

22. **Black box** (PPAP) – refers to a part where design responsibility belongs to the organization or the supplier. ODD (outside design & development) has the equivalent meaning.

23. **Bulk material** (PPAP) – is a substance (non-dimensional solid, liquid, gas) such as adhesives, sealants, chemicals, coatings, fabrics, lubricants, etc.

24. **Bulk materials requirements checklist** (PPAP) – defines customer PPAP requirements for bulk material.

25. **CAD/CAM math data** (PPAP) – is a form of design record by which all dimensional information necessary to define a product is conveyed electronically.

26. ** Calibration** (MSA) - set of operations that establish, under specified conditions, the relationship between a measuring device & a traceable standard of known reference value & uncertainty

**(PPAP)**– is a set of operations which compares values taken from a piece of IMTE or a gage to a known standard under specified conditions.

27. ** Calibration interval **(MSA) – specified amount of time or set of conditions between calibrations during which the calibration parameters of a measuring device are considered valid.

28. ** Capability** (MSA) - combined variation of measurement errors (random & systematic) based on a short-term assessment of the measurement system…..

**(PPAP)**– total range of inherent variation in a stable process.

-----1. ** Long term capability** (MSA) - within-subgroup variation over a long period of time. This differs from performance as it does not include the between-subgroup variation.

-----2. ** Process capability** (SPC) - six sigma range of inherent process variation

29. ** Cause & effect diagram **(SPC) – Simple problem solving tool, uses graphic description to analyze sources of variation. Also called as fishbone (after its appearance) or Ishikawa (after its developer)

30. ** Centerline** (SPC) – line representing average value

31. ** Characteristic** (SPC) – a distinguishing feature (of a process or its output)

32. **Characteristics matrix** (APQP) – display relationship between process parameters Vs mfg. stations.

33. **Checked print** (PPAP) – is a released engineering drawing with actual measurement results recorded by the organization adjacent to each drawing dimension & other requirements.

34. ** Common cause** (SPC) –source of inherent process variation, affects all outputs.

35. ** Confidence interval** (MSA) - range of values expected to include the true value of a parameter…..(SPC) – An interval or range of values, calculated from sample data, that contains, with a (100-∞) degree of certainty, the population parameter of interest.

36. **Conformance** (PPAP) – part or material meets customer’s specifications & requirements.

37. ** Consecutive** (SPC) – in succession

38. ** Continual improvement** (SPC) – dynamic strategy contrasts with outgoing NCs are inevitable.

39. **Control or Statistical control** (PPAP / SPC) – all special causes eliminated.

-----1. ** In-control** (MSA) - process with only common cause variation

-----2. ** Out of control** (MSA) - process with chaotic, assignable, or special cause

-----3. ** Process control** (SPC) – Condition describing a process from which the effect of all special causes of variation have been eliminated & only that due to common causes remain…..

**(MSA)**purpose of measurement & decision criteria applies to real-time production to assess process stability & the measurand to natural process variation (result indicates either stable and “in-control” or “out-of-control”)

-----4. ** Statistical process control** (SPC) – use of statistical techniques to attain statistical control.

40. ** Control chart** (SPC / MSA/PPAP) – graphic representation of a characteristic of a process with a center line & one or two control limits.

-----1. ** ARMA control chart** (SPC) –

__A__uto

__R__egressive

__M__oving

__A__verage, used where sample data are independent is violated

-----2. ** CUSUM control chart** (SPC) – to detect small to moderate shifts in the process average or variability.

__CU__mulative

__SUM__of deviations from the target & puts equal weight on the current & recent past data.

-----3. ** EWMA control chart** (SPC) (

__E__xponentially

__W__eighted

__M__oving

__A__verage) – to detect small shifts in process location.

-----4. ** MCUSUM control chart** (SPC) – Multivariate CUmulative SUM

**–**applying CUSUM to multivariate situations.

-----5. ** MEWMA control chart** (SPC) – Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average.

-----6. ** Multivariate control chart** (SPC) – for multivariate distribution.

-----7. ** Non-normal control chart** (SPC) – adjustments made while compensating for the characteristics of a non-normal distribution.

-----8. ** Probability based charts** (SPC) – uses categories data & probabilities related to the categories.

-----9. ** Regression control chart** (SPC) – to determine if & when deviation from the known predictable relationship occurs.

-----10. ** Residuals control chart** (SPC) – monitors using differences between a fitted model & the data.

-----11. ** Short run control chart** (SPC) – adjusted for small volumes during a single run.

41. ** Control limit** (SPC) – a line or lines on a control chart used as a basis for judging the stability of a process.

42. **Control plans** (PPAP) – written descriptions of the system for controlling production parts, bulk materials and processes.

43. ** Control statistic** (SPC) – a value calculated from or based upon sample data.

44. ** Correlation** (SPC) – degree of relationship between variables.

45. ** Correlation matrix** (SPC) – a matrix of all possible correlations.

46. **Customer** (PPAP) – recipient of the organization’s or supplier’s product or service.

47. ** Data **(MSA) – a collection of variable or discrete observations under a set of conditions.

48. ** Datum** (SPC) – singular of “data”. A single point in a series of data.

49. **Design for manufacturability & assembly** (APQP) – optimizes relationship between design function, manufacturability & ease of assembly.

50. **Design information checklist** (APQP) – a mistake proofing checklist designed to assure that all important items were considered in establishing design requirements.

51. **Design record** (PPAP) – is the part drawing, specifications, and/or electronic (CAD) data used to convey information necessary to produce a product.

52. **Design reviews** (APQP) – milestone checkpoints to review progress proactively.

53. **Design validation** (APQP) – confirmation through objective evidence on intended use has been fulfilled.

54. **Design verification** (APQP) – confirmation through objective evidence, that specific requirements have been fulfilled.

55. ** Designed experiment** (MSA) - changes made to process factors & the effects observed, to determine relationship of process variables

56. **Design-intended robust range** (PPAP) – limits within which parameters may be allowed to vary while still ensuring that a product complies with fitness for use.

57. ** Detection** (SPC) – identify unacceptable after produced & separate.

58. ** Discrimination** (MSA) - smallest readable unit or least count

59. ** Distinct data categories** (MSA) - reliably distinguished, determined by effective resolution of the measurement system & part variation.

**(MSA) (number of distinct categories) - [1.41(pv/grr)]**

*ndc*60. ** Distribution** (SPC) – individual values as a group form a pattern. Described by Location (mean, median), spread (std.dev, range), shape (symmetry, peaked, skewed).

-----1. ** Binomial distribution** (SPC) – a discrete probability distribution for attributes data (p, np chart).

-----2. ** Non-normal distribution** (SPC) – does not follow the normal form (moments > order two are not all zero)

-----3. ** Normal distribution** (SPC) - continuous, symmetrical & bell-shaped

-----4. ** Poisson distribution** (SPC) - discrete probability distribution for attributes data (c, u control charts)

61. **Durability** (APQP) – probability that an item will continue to function at expected levels without overhaul or rebuild.

62. ** Effective resolution** (MSA) - size of data category when total measurement system variation is considered

63. ** F ratio** (MSA) - ratio of between-group mean square error to the within-group mean square error (used to assess the probability of random occurrence)

64. **Failure mode & effects analysis (FMEA)** (APQP / PPAP) – analytical methodology used to ensure potential problems have been considered & addressed throughout the product & process development (APQP)

65. **Feasibility** (APQP) – a determination of success w.r.t process, design, procedure or plan.

66. ** Gage R&R** (MSA) - estimate of combined variation of repeatability & reproducibility (equal to sum of within-system & between-system variances).

67. ** Histogram** (MSA) - frequency of grouped data

68. ** Independent & identically distributed** (MSA) - homogeneous, independent & randomly distributed

69. ** Independent** (MSA) - no effect between one event on the probability to another event

70. ** Individual** (SPC) – single unit or single measurement normally denoted by “x”.

71. ** Interaction **(MSA) – a combined effect or outcome resulting from two or more significant variables

72. **Laboratory** (PPAP) – test facility that may include chemical, metallurgical, dimensional, physical, electrical, reliability testing or test validation.

73. **Laboratory scope** (PPAP) – is a quality record containing,

-----§ Specific tests, evaluations & calibrations that an organization’s laboratory has the ability & competency to perform

-----§ List of equipment which it uses to perform the above

-----§ List of methods & standards to which it performs the above

74. ** Linearity** (MSA) - change in bias over entire operating range

75. ** Location** (SPC) – central tendency (mean, median, mode)

-----1. ** Average** (SPC)

**(SPC) – average of values (location)**

*Mean*-----2. ** Median** (SPC) – middle value in a group when arranged from lowest to highest.

-----3. ** Mode** (SPC) - most frequently occurring (there may be more than one mode)

-----4. ** Process average** (SPC) (location, Xdoublebar) – overall average

76. ** Loss function** (SPC) – customer sensitivity (loss)

**Vs**deviations from the target (design intent).

77. **Marked print** (PPAP) – modified, signed & dated by the customer engineer.

78. ** Measurand** (MSA) - defined set of specifications for a measurement application

79. ** Measurement system** (MSA) - complete process used to obtain measurements

80. ** Measurement system error** (MSA) - combined variation due to gage bias, repeatability, reproducibility, stability & linearity

81. ** Metrology** (MSA) - science of measurement

82. ** Moving range** (SPC) – adding the new point & deleting the oldest chronological point.

83. ** Nonconforming units** (SPC) – units do not conform to a specification (p, np charts)

84. ** Nonconformity** (SPC) – individual NC-unit can have more than one NC.

85. ** Non-replicable** (MSA) - inability to make repeated measurements due to dynamic nature of the measurand

86. ** Operational definition** (SPC) – a criterion, a test & a decision to an object or to a group.

87. **Organizations** (PPAP) – are providers of,

-----§ Production materials

-----§ Production or service parts

-----§ Assemblies or

-----§ Heat treating, welding, painting, plating or other finishing services

88. ** Over-adjustment** (SPC) – tampering, taking action when a process is stable.

89. **Packaging** (APQP) – protection & containment with ease of handling.

90. ** Pareto chart** (SPC) – ranking w.r.t cost or total variation.

91. **Part submission warrant (PSW)** (PPAP) - **Warrant** (PPAP) – is an industry standard document required for all newly-tooled or revised products in which the organization confirms that inspections & tests on production parts show conformance to customer requirements.

92. ** Part to part variation** (MSA) - variation due to measuring different parts

93. ** Part variation** (MSA) - part to part & time to time variation for a stable process

94. **Pass through characteristics** (APQP) – parts received from supplier used as it is (no modification or validation).

95. ** Performance** (MSA) - combined variation of measurement errors (random & systematic) based on a long-term assessment of the measurement system

-----1. ** Process performance** (SPC) - six sigma range of total process variation

96. **Perishable tools** (PPAP) – are drill bits, cutters, inserts, etc. used to produce a product & which are consumed in the process.

97. ** Point estimate** (SPC) - single number, egs: average or standard deviations

98. ** Precision - repeatability** (MSA) - expected variation of repeated measurements over the range of measurement

99. ** Pre-control** (SPC) – probabilistic analysis to product control using two data points within each sample.

100. ** Prediction interval** (SPC) – predicting interval once the regression model is established for a population.

101. **Preliminary bill of material** (APQP) – completed prior to design & print release.

102. **Preliminary process flow chart** (APQP) – early depiction of the anticipated mfg.process for a product.

103. ** Prevention** (SPC) – a pro-active strategy directing analysis & action toward correcting the process itself.

104. ** Probability** (MSA) - estimate describing the chance a specific event will occur, probability estimates range between 0-impossible to 1-sure

105. ** Problem solving** (SPC) - symptoms to causes, causes to actions

106. **Process** (PPAP) – set of interrelated or interacting activities which transform inputs into outputs….. **(SPC)** – combination of 6Ms to produce output (product r process)

107. **Process flow diagram** (PPAP) – is a schematic representation of the process flow.

108. **Product assurance plan** (APQP) – A part of product quality plan. It is a prevention oriented management tool that addresses product design, process design, & when applicable software design.

109. ** Product control** (MSA) - assess measurand to a specification (result is either “in-tolerance” or “out-of-tolerance”)

110. **Production environment** (PPAP) – all of the process conditions surrounding or affecting the manufacture & quality of a part or product.

111. **Production material** (PPAP) – material which has been issued a production part number by the customer & is shipped directly to the customer.

112. **Production part** (PPAP) – manufactured at the production site using production tooling, gaging, process, materials, operators, environment, & process settings (eg.: feeds speed cycle times pressures temperatures)

113. **Production part approval submission** (PPAP) – specific quantities taken from significant production run made in production environment submitted for approval.

114. **Production rate** (PPAP) – is the agreed upon no. of parts produced in a planned time period to meet customer assembly or mfg. plant production volume requirements (with consideration of other product mix & machine availability).

115. ** Quadratic** (SPC) - second order mathematical model (egs: parabola).

116. **Quality indices** (PPAP) – measures of capability or performance for either product or process.

117. **Quality planning** (PPAP) – structured process for defining methods (measurements, tests) that will be used in the production of a specific product or family of products. Embodies the concepts of defect prevention & continual improvement as contrasted with defect detention.

118. **Quality planning approval** (APQP) – a review & verification that all planned controls & processes are being followed.

119. **Quality record** (PPAP) – is a document stating results achieved or providing evidence of activities performed.

120. ** Randomness** (SPC) - a condition in which no pattern in the data can be discerned.

121. ** Rational subgroup** (SPC) – to give maximum chance in each subgroup to be alike & subgroups to differ one from the other.

122. ** Reference value** (MSA) - master value

123. ** Regression analysis** (MSA) - mathematical relationship between two or more variables

124. **Regular production tooling** (PPAP) – tooling with which the manufacturer intends to produce production product.

125. **Reliability** (APQP) – the probability that an item will continue to function at customer expectation levels at a measurement point, under specified environmental & duty cycle conditions.

126. ** Repeatability** (MSA) - fixed part, instrument, standard method, operator, environment, & assumptions (referring as “Equipment Variation” (EV) is misleading, best term is

__within-system__variation)

127. ** Replicable** (MSA) - the ability to make repeated measurements on the same sample where there is no significant physical change to the measurand or measurement environment

128. ** Replication** (MSA) - multiple trials under identical conditions

129. ** Reproducibility** (MSA) - same part, same instrument, different operators (average variation

__between-systems__or between-conditions of measurement)

130. ** Resolution** (MSA) (measurement resolution or effective resolution) - capability of the measurement system to detect & faithfully indicate even small changes of the measured characteristic

131. ** Run** (SPC) - consecutive points increasing or decreasing or above or below centerline

132. **Saleable product/part** (PPAP) – specified on the contract between the customer & organization.

133. ** Sample** (SPC) (see subgroup)

-----1. ** Convenience sampling** (SPC) - easy to collect samples. (Egs: before a break period, top of a container)

-----2. ** Haphazard sampling** (SPC) - unsystematic, indiscriminant, unplanned, chaotic

-----3. ** Random sampling** -

**(SPC) - every sample point has same chance of being selected.**

*Probability sampling*134. ** Scatter diagram** (MSA) – (x-y) plot to assess relationship between two variables)

135. ** Sensitivity** (MSA) - smallest input signal that results in a detectable output signal for a measurement device

136. ** Shape** (SPC) - overall pattern formed by a distribution of values (egs: skew, kurtosis)

137. ** Sigma (σ)** (SPC) - greek letter used to denote std.dev of a population.

138. ** Significance level** (MSA) - statistical level selected to test the probability of random outcomes, also associated with risk (decision error)

139. **Significant production run** (APQP) – product made using all production tools, processes, equipment, environment, facility & cycle time. **(PPAP)** – see PPAP 2.1

140. **Simulation** (APQP) – imitating some or all the behavior of one system with a different, dissimilar system.

141. **Site** (PPAP) – location at which value added manufacturing processes occur.

142. ** Special cause** (SPC) - often intermittent & unpredictable, affects only some of the outputs. Signaled by one or more points beyond control limits or non-random pattern of points within control limits.

143. **Special characteristics** (APQP) – characteristics having significant impact on the quality, function, fit, safety – designated by customer or selected by organization through knowledge of product & process….. **(PPAP)** – Product or process parameters which can affect safety or compliance with regulations, fit, function, performance or subsequent processing of a product.

144. ** Specification** -

**(SPC) (bilateral, unilateral) - engg reqmt for judging acceptability of a particular characteristic…..**

*Tolerance***(PPAP)**– document stating requirements. - allowable deviation from a nominal value that maintains fit, form & function

145. ** Spread** (SPC) - expected span of values from smallest to largest in a distribution.

-----1. ** Process spread** (SPC) -

**(SPC) (Moving range chart) – often shown as average plus or minus some number of standard deviations.**

*Dispersion*-----2. ** Std. deviation** (SPC) - measure of the spread of the process output.

-----3. ** Range** (SPC) – (Highest – lowest), measure of process spread.

146. ** Stability** (MSA) - change in bias over time.....

**(SPC) - no special causes, property of being in statistical control.**

*Stability*147. ** Stable process** (SPC / PPAP) - process in statistical control.

148. ** Statistic** (SPC) - a value calculated from sample data used to make inferences about the process that produced the output.

149. ** Statistical inference** (SPC) - single number (point estimate) or a pair of numbers (interval estimate)

150. ** Statistical tolerance limits** (SPC) – interval or range expected to contain a specified proportion of a population.

151. **Submission level** (PPAP) – refers to level of evidence required for PPAP submission.

152. **Subsystem** (APQP) – a major part of a system which itself has the characteristics of a system, usually consisting of several components or processes.

153. **Suppliers **(PPAP) – Providers of production materials or production or service parts.

154. **System** (APQP) – a combination of several components, processes or pieces of equipment integrated to perform a specific function.

155. **Team feasibility commitment** (APQP) – team commitment on manufacturability & delivery of a product at required rate & cost.

156. **Timing plan** (APQP) – listing of tasks, assignments, events & timing required to provide a product that meets customer needs & expectations.

157. **Tool** (PPAP) – used in process machinery to transform raw material into finished part or assembly.

158. ** Uncertainty** (MSA) - quantified expression of measurement reliability (range assigned to a measurement result that describes, within a defined level of confidence, the limits expected to contain the true measurement result).

159. ** Unimodal** (MSA) - contiguous group of data that has one mode

160. **Validation** (PPAP) – confirmation through objective evidence that the requirements for a __specific intended use or application__ have been fulfilled.

161. **Variables data** (PPAP) – quantitative data

162. **Variation** (SPC) – Inevitable differences among individual outputs of a process

-----1. **Inherent variation **(SPC) – Due to common cause only

-----2. **Within-subgroup variation **(SPC) – Due to within-subgroups. If the process is in statistical control, this variation is a good estimate of the inherent process variation. Can be estimated from control charts by Rbar/d2 or sbar/c4.

-----3. **Between-subgroup variation **(SPC) – Due to between-subgroup. If the process is in statistical control, this variation should be zero.

-----4. **Total process variation **(SPC) – Variation due to both within-subgroup & between-subgroup.

163. **Verification** (PPAP) – confirmation through objective evidence that __specific requirements__ have been fulfilled.

164. **Voice of the customer** (APQP) – Positive & negative feedback of customers including likes, dislikes, problems & suggestions.